Saturday, August 31, 2019

Legal philosophy Essay

The crucial element lies in bringing the guilty to justice; but for that to happen, it has to be determined first who is guilty and who is not, not just in terms of who committed the crime, but whether a certain action and the consequences of it fall under the category of crime at all, and under what criteria. There is a great scope of ambiguity and fuzziness here. The battle between good and evil seems to have been going on for all the time, and yet good and evil are highly relative terms. There exist no clear-cut distinctions, no separate black and white segments. In many ways, good and evil constitute a messy flux, and criminal justice system is needed to sort these things out on a continual basis. Law, with the moral and legal philosophy underlying it, directs the criminal justice system in this complex task of determining good from evil, the right from the wrong, as well as the right from the good. These laws are not static and fixed entities, they can and do change with time; legal philosophy is constantly evolving. Our perceptions and interpretations of the good and the right need to be reconsidered from time to time. The ongoing struggle is to evolve a society that is more firmly based on justice and freedom. Justice requires that each citizen have an equal and fair starting position in respect of the physical necessities, educational opportunities, and employment opportunities. And the principle of freedom requires that the government not force a single conception of the good upon individuals, but simply guarantee that individuals are free to pursue their various goods as they perceive them (Garner 2005). The choices freely made reflect a variety of views of what is good. Human beings are uniquely individual personalities, endowed with immense potentiality for mental and spiritual growth. The role of society lies in being caring and tolerant about the individual and the differences in the unique individualities of people, and displaying a commitment to respect all its members who are in the process of cultivating their freedom and realizing their potentiality. It is not the government’s business or right to determine what is good, but only to guarantee justice and freedom of choice to individuals. The guarantee of justice and freedom of choice will protect individuals’ pursuits of their various private conceptions of the good. In this way, the government ensures â€Å"The greatest good for the greatest number,† the principle on which utilitarianism is founded (Penslar 1995). Each individual is free to pursue his or her own conception of the good life, as long as it does not bring harm to others. The government should be neutral as to the conceptions of the good life, in order to respect persons as free and independent agents of action, capable of choosing their own ends. For example, the good lies in the fact of each individual being free to follow a religion or belief system of his own choice, or not to follow any should he choose to. Unfortunately, this condition is very likely to be violated in modern world where fundamentalism is gaining ground everyday. If we take the United States, for example, three things are happening 1) Evangelical Christianity is spreading like wild fire: â€Å"The Evangelical Christian movement is the fastest growing segment of American religion with 42% of all Christians in America identifying themselves as Evangelicals† (Cobia 2007) 2) as is common knowledge, the government is growing more powerful and centralized, and 3) a very high percentage of people in the government, including the president himself, are fundamentalist evangelical Christians (McMahon 2006). In such a scenario, it is very likely that, in the near future, basic individual freedom to choose his or her own would be breached and fundamentalism be imposed as a state-sponsored religion. When that happens, the theory of evolution will be removed from textbooks and Biblical doctrine of creationism taught in its place. Science would stagnate, progress would stop, and humanity may slip back to dark ages. Upon considering such a possibility, we can see how ensuring individual freedom to determine one’s own good is conducive to the good of the society as a whole, promotes progress and enlightens humanity. When individual freedom is lost, be it in religion or any other sphere of life, the spirit of humanity starts dying.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Employee Health Analysis

Report on Employee Health Analysis| November 16 2012 | A detailed analysis regarding the health related issues of Data entry operators where a possible structure of problems and solutions are given after analyzing the data of 50 clerical staffs. | Avijit Mitra MHRM 12HS60007| Table of Contents Introduction3 Background3 Method4 Objective5 Problem Analysis5 Recommendations7 Conclusion9 Introduction Staff welfare is an important facility provided by companies to their employees to keep their motivation levels high. Organizations frame many approaches to ensure health and safety of their employees.But not all of the approaches focus on contribution of both work design and employee welfare. Many organizational and individual issues emerge in management of employee health and safety. With successful implementation of Employee welfare facilities it can be ensured that employees are monitoring and addressing health issues with resultant benefits of reduced absenteeism, improved productivity and reduced injury rates. Background A manufacturing facility in Mumbai employs three data entry operators who work full time entering the records related to production, personnel, and inventory data into the computer.As required by the labour agreement, in addition to a one-hour break as part of the lunch period, these three operators receive two 15 minutes break daily; they may take them at any convenient time, once in the morning and the other in the afternoon. Otherwise, they generally work at their keyboards all day. One of the operators was absent from work for two weeks for a condition diagnosed as carpal tunnel syndrome, a neuromuscular disorder of the tendons and tissues in the wrists caused by repeated hand motions. His symptoms included a severe ache in the wrist and ever growing pain in the neck and shoulder.However, after a week, a second data entry operator experienced similar symptoms; his doctor diagnosed his ailment as ‘RSI or repetitive stress injury’ and referred to it informally as the VDT (Video Display Terminal) disease. With more data entry operators to be hired, Ramesh Chauhan asked his assistant, Sandeep Kaul, to gather additional information on this condition. He wants Sandeep to make any appropriate recommendations regarding the work environment — posture, furniture, work habits, rest breaks, and the like — that will alleviate this problem. MethodPreparation of Detailed Analysis Complete method took three stages to assess mental stress of the employees. Before the actual analysis, employees were informed about the course of the proceedings. On the basis of general information about the company including the corporate structure, descriptions of work tasks, work time regulations, and rules on internal communications a set of questionnaire was prepared. Stress Analysis: Observation and Structured Analysis Specific questions were asked to employees to understand their work tasks and working situation.In additio n employees were asked about cooperation with other departments, frequency of specific activities, or organizational arrangements in order to better describe the conditions of the job in detail. Evaluation and Recommendations After the stress analysis many problems are identified due to the mental demand of the job. A detailed policy recommendation is constructed to selectively reduce areas of psychological stress which was identified in the organization. Objective Determining the requirements of organizational stress analysis * Getting an objective assessment of the mental demands of jobs in the organization * Using the analysis to improve productivity reducing the psychological stress * Determining the readiness of employees to join stressful job like data entry Problem Analysis | Physical Work Settings The physical settings of work affect the performance of employees to a great extent. Some of these factors include temperature, noise levels, and proper lighting affect job perform ance.Other work setting factors include size of work area, kinds of materials used, distance between work areas, cubicle arrangementSick Building Syndrome It is a situation in which employees experience acute health problems and discomfort due to the time spent in a building (particularly their workplace). Some factors that lead to sick buildings include poor air quality, inadequate ventilation, improper cleanliness, rodents, stench of adhesives and gluesErgonomics The term comes from the Greek word ergon, which means â€Å"work,† and omics which means â€Å"management of. Ergonomics is the study of physiological, psychological, and engineering design aspects of a job, including such factors as fatigue, lighting, tools, equipment layout, and placement of controls. It is the interface between men and machines. Ergonomics is taken into consideration when designing the workstation for computer operators. Problems of back ache, eye strain and headache arise due to long working h ours spent in front of computers. Engineering of Work Equipments and Materials Health Related are caused by improper work equipments. Moreover design of such machines and equipments also plays an important role in employee stress.Old computer monitor without eye guard and keyboards without soft buttons are often the cause of multiple health issues. Cumulative Trauma and Repetitive Stress Cumulative trauma disorder occurs when same muscles are used repetitively to perform some task. This results in injuries of musculoskeletal and nervous system. Employees encounter high levels of mental and physical stress also. Lack of recreational activities Monotonous work schedule and lack of recreational activities can cause psychological disorder which effects the productivity of employees in workplace.Lack of motivation In spite of being an indirect cause for health issues this factor is increasingly becoming a common problem in modern workplace. Due to monotonous job and lack of reward employ ees are suffering from lack of motivation. This problem is resulting in increasing number of unscheduled leave mentioning the false reason of health related issues to the supervisor. This issue can be identified by using Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X assumes that people are lazy, dislike and shun work, lack ambition, dislike responsibility, and prefer to be led. These are the common symptoms of lack of motivation in workplace. Recommendations Employee Health Screening Employee Health Screening should be utilized to gain an overall health profile of the employee and the workforce in general frequently. This process data will help to figure out the continuous progress or deterioration of employee health and the management team can prepare effective solutions for each single employees. Health Promotion Seminars Mental Health Wellness seminars should be conducted to convey effective ways of reducing the likely presence of depression, anxiety or other mental h ealth related concerns of an employee or a job seeker.This health related awareness will provide guidelines how to avoid stress and monotonous activities Healthy working Environment We have to provide occupational health clinics, which give employees immediate access to specially trained medical personnel. Physicians and nurses who evaluate our employees should be specialists in occupational medicine. Mental Well-Being We have to be responsible for providing a safe, fair and clean work environment. We should also be accountable to the mental well-being of employees by helping them in personal struggles and providing a healthy work-life balanceRecreational activities Fun activities like games quiz can help the employees the get relief from monotonous activities. It is often said a healthy mind is the pillar of physically fit human beings. Fun activities can provide required breathing space to the employees to build up a healthy mind. Motivation Improvement Under Theory X, management approach should range from a â€Å"hard† to a â€Å"soft† approach. The hard approach should rely on coercion, implicit threats, close supervision, and tight controls; essentially an environment of command and control.The soft approach is to be permissive and seek harmony, with the hope that in return employees will cooperate when asked to do so. However, neither of these extremes is optimal. The hard approach often results in hostility, purposely low-productivity. The soft approach results in ever-increasing requests for more rewards in exchange for ever-decreasing productivity. Conclusion When we feel our best, we do your best. But when something is troubling or hurting us, it’s difficult to set those concerns aside and focus on work.We should provide support programs and services to help our employees live healthier and safer lives – at work, home and on the road. This is good for our people and good for our business. Our success is a result of the com mitment, dedication and aspiration of our employees and we should aim to provide an environment and culture that inspires and breeds success. With successful implementation of Employee welfare facilities we must ensure that all employees are under frequent health checkup. This will not only reduce absenteeism but also will provide sufficient improvement in productivity of each employee.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Basic requirements of a written exam Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Basic requirements of a written exam - Essay Example According to Bloom’s taxonomy for levels of understanding, six levels include knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation; typically, for the first three levels, written examinations are most suitable and can be made cost-effective where many students are to be evaluated. Nevertheless, written exams need to be set appropriately to ensure that they deliver a reliable evaluation of students’ knowledge. This is usually achievable through use of multiple-choice questions as they enable teachers to pinpoint depth of knowledge concerning detail. Coupled with proper setting, written examinations also require a defined grading system (Asklund and Bendix 1). For a written exam to be effective, it should be valid, reliable and consistent, transparent, fair, efficient and ease in handling, and allow for useful feedback. Validity refers to measuring what is actually intended, where results achieved should be accounted for practically. Reliability and consistency enable achievement of similar results regardless of number of assessors and over time; more so, with marking schemes and assessment criterion. Transparency implies that the written examinations should test in such a way that the stated learning objectives are clearly met. Fairness calls for all students to be subjected to the same form of assessment and as per the criterion set. Lastly, to avoid written examinations being perceived as burdensome, they should be allocated sufficient time for both being done and marking, and afterwards, students should have their progress communicated to them in due course. However, the requirements of a written exam differ with the type it is that is, whether unseen, revealed, open book, multiple choice or take home assignments. An unseen written exam occurs where the content of the exam are unknown to students whereas, in a revealed exam, students are made aware of the

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Exclusive Styles Ladies Boutique Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Exclusive Styles Ladies Boutique - Term Paper Example SWOT analysis (alternately SLOT analysis) refers to a method of strategic planning for the evaluation of Strengths, Weaknesses/Limitations, Opportunities, and Threats that are present in a business venture or a project (Humphrey, Albert, 2005). The SWOT analysis for the Exclusive Style Boutique is as follows: Strengths The boutique will have ‘hit-the-trend’ style clothes which will be a big attraction and will present wide variety to the trendy and contemporary style women. The clothes will be affordable and easily accessible to the women across the globe. The clothe range will be diverse with various choices and different fabrics in the product line. Moreover, additional services like salon, cafe and lounges will be available which will successfully position the boutique in the minds of consumers and will build its brand image. Weaknesses Some of the weaknesses that the boutique may face might include the difficulty to manage the product lines, big staff and the store s pace. It may incur high management costs and difficulties in the management of customer services. The growing popularity of the store would require the management to maintain the presentation of its interior and manage the uniqueness of product, style, and fabric. Opportunities The external environment of Exclusive Styles would provide it good opportunities to avail. For instance, it has been a trend that the young population spends more; therefore, the major target population will be young ladies or the working class who prefer to look and wear well every day. In order to create brand attachment and fame, the store will have a good opportunity to get the brands advertised and endorsed through celebrities. Furthermore, the option of choice,... Regarding the tough market competition, the owner of a small boutique mentioned various designers that have already captured the market and have maintained their own customer bases. They have already positioned them so much in the minds of the customers that it becomes difficult for a new business venture in the same industry to deal with the cutthroat rivalry. Besides all other factors, the market conditions, according to her, present an uncertain climate. There is the recession, variations in exchange rates, laws and regulations of trading, higher expenditures, persistently growing inflation and many other factors which may hinder the progress of a business. Not only may this, but a new business struggling to expand and diversify become difficult to be managed and controlled in terms of its scope and human resource base. Thus, the general opinion given by the boutique’s owner stated that the new business ventures in the industry need to be more competitive and challenging in order to cope up with the existing and the upcoming market conditions. After interviewing the owner, one of the employees from the same boutique was enquired about the work management and the viewpoints. According to her, the customers exhibit a good behavior when they are treated with concentration and are given extra services. For a new business venture to be successful, especially a boutique, it is essential that the employees are kept satisfied with good quality products, better after sale services.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

College as a Student-Athlete Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

College as a Student-Athlete - Essay Example This paper would further discuss the life and activities of student-athletes and the areas which are affected by their involvement in sports. Research suggests that athletic involvement negatively influences the academic performance of a student (Kissinger & Miller 2009, p. 202). The time requirements of sports may be a factor that ends up in the underperformance by students in academic field. A non-athlete student may be more focused and able to manage the time commitments of education as compared to a student-athlete who requires to distribute time between both areas i.e. academics and sports. The reason behind this negative impact on academic results may be translated as poor time management skills, low motivation, high levels of stress and more time and energy utilization on one field over other. Students’ preferences and personal interest also play a vital role in affecting the performance in different fields. If the student prioritizes activities as sports being superior to academic results and participation then his interest and priorities might affect the academic performance. Studies reveal a declining graduation rate among student-athletes which further illuminates the influence of sports participation on students’ academic performance and results. ... They lose hopes to manage the two difficult tasks together. Negative comments and criticism from the coaches, leaders, teachers and fellows may further influence their self-esteem. Lower self-esteem is linked to poor performance in each aspect of life including social, academic, work, sports and daily life. Student-athletes are more likely to make wrong decisions due to increasing stress (Fertman 2009, pp. 30-34). Stress alone is responsible for negative effects on respiratory system. It weakens the immune system and increase the vulnerability of a person to asthma, bronchitis, diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease. The highly stressful situations in student-athletes’ life may, hence, also affect their health (Fertman 2009, p. 30). Moreover, the high stress is often related to the insufficient time for their personal needs like sleeping, relaxing, socializing and spending time with family. This fact causes a negative impact on their mental development. Time management is one of the biggest and common issues that student-athletes face. They have more work to be done than non-athlete students, in the same time period available to all other students. Student-athletes are required to manage time between the most important factors of their life i.e. studies and sports. The time limitations do not allow them to participate and involve in both areas as passionately and energetically as non-athlete students do. This does not only restricts their performance excellence but also affects their enthusiasm to achieve high in both areas. A factor which needs to be discussed here is the financial needs of students who are living on their own. Diversity and globalization

Monday, August 26, 2019

Influence of Organic Evolution (Evolutionary Biology) in What You Do Essay

Influence of Organic Evolution (Evolutionary Biology) in What You Do in Your Professional and Family Life - Essay Example Since the inception of this theory, the origin of man has been directly implicated in the tangle. Evolution theory also expounds the cumulative characteristics change in organism in successive generations related by descent. Besides, it accounts for the origin of all types of organisms now living, The Theory of Special Creation, on the other hand, opposes this concept asserting that every type of organism was created in such a special way and not descent-related. By this, the resulting successful progeny and variants, which had different survival value, are chosen through a natural process. How will then the learned knowledge on Evolutionary Biology or Organic Evolution influence my undertakings The amount of knowledge on Organic Evolution seems to have an incomplete pattern. Looking back at the past century, scientists had put much emphasis on studying struggle for existence as part of the evolutionary theory. It is a fact that man still regards struggle and conflict as necessities of life. Even phasing out some members of social groups was seen as a "legitimate" way of improving a special human race. The Law of Survival of the Fittest gives way to all difficulties, which is a defect of the lower world of nature. In an on-line publication, Dr. Donald G.

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Role of Culture Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Role of Culture - Research Paper Example Introduction Before going into the discussion regarding role of culture in a country, let us get a better understanding of what culture actually is. Culture represents the customs and traditions of people living in any specific society. Kartha (n.d.) states, â€Å"Culture is something that a person learns from his family and surroundings, and is not ingrained in him from birth†. It is a pattern of such behaviors and characteristics, which a person needs to learn if he or she wants to survive in a society in an appropriate manner. In this paper, we will not only discuss the role which culture plays in the lives of people living in Puerto Rico but also we will examine the culture of Puerto Rico from different aspects, such as, education, business management, communication, politics, food, religion, and etiquettes. Role of Culture in a Country Culture plays a critical role in shaping the behaviors and characteristics of people living in any specific country. Culture shapes the wa y the citizens communicate with each other. It gives an identity to the people of a country, which differentiates them from the people of other countries. Culture is the backbone of every society or any country. Every country has a different culture, which differentiates from the cultures of other countries. ... â€Å"Usually, people who settle in other nations imbibe the new culture, while at the same time strive to preserve their own† (Kartha, n.d.). Cultural Influences of Puerto Rico Culture plays its role in setting the dimensions for the economic progress of Puerto Rico. Beautiful landscapes and rich culture of Puerto Rico provide a sensual feast for the visitors (Beasley, 2010). Culture is involved in every aspect of the country’s growth and development. Some of the most common fields in which culture holds a very significant position include education, business management, communication, politics, food, religion, etiquettes, and gender roles. Let us discuss how culture makes an impact on the progress and development of Puerto Rico, which is an unincorporated territory of the United Sates of America. Impact on Education Culture has a very significant impact on the education of Puerto Rico. Cultural tendencies influence the way students participate in the process of learni ng. Understanding of the culture also influences perception and awareness of the students, which helps them deal with different challenges regarding education. Improvement in the process of learning is the best example of cultural influence on education in Puerto Rico. Students improve their process of learning when their teachers emphasize on mental representations, visual learning strategies, and hands on learning. In Puerto Rico, it is one of the main responsibilities of a teacher to integrate the elements of culture in the process of educating the children because in this way, children can become familiar with norms and values of their own culture. Those students, who learn the values of their cultures and exhibit them throughout their educational career, achieve

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Investment Analysis Coursework 2001 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Investment Analysis Coursework 2001 - Essay Example ‘Herd’ implies a social grouping of people, who have similar understanding or perception about anything. Here ‘herd’ implies the people, who have the same viewpoint within the stock market. The above statement briefs that market movements are dependent on individuals. If a person buys a particular stock and he is a popular figure in the community and society, then every individual intends to purchase this stock and this is simply because the first person has bought it, not because of the market value of the stock. â€Å"Perhaps 100 people were simply imitating the coin flipping call of some terribly persuasive personality† (Buffett n.d. p. 4). The ‘margin of safety’ principle implies that safety should be ensured while buying stocks. Walter has justified that while dealing in the stock market, it should always be remembered that it is other people’s money which is being handled. Therefore it reinforces the ethics to strongly avert losses while dealing in stocks. It should always be remembered that money is real and therefore should be handled appropriately. If the net worth of a business is $1 and it can be obtained at 40 cents, then it aims to generate profit. In the stock markets risks and rewards are correlated because as the stock grows riskier, more are the returns from this stock. Even though a high risk stock would be able to generate more returns, yet a risky stock can also generate less or nil returns because the stock’s performance is dependent upon its market performance, which is guarded by several principles. Rational pricing is very important in the stock market, as this pricing is needed for fixed income securities and bonds. Rational pricing implies such a type of pricing, which represents that the market price of the assets in the stock market is free of any arbitrage pricing. Eugene Fama has been propounded as the father of the theory of ‘efficient market hypothesis’. Fam a stated two theories related to the efficient market hypothesis. The first theory was classifying the markets on the basis of three types of efficiency. Fama classified three forms of efficiency which are as follows: Strong form efficiency Semi strong form efficiency Weak form efficiency The strong form efficiency implies that all information related to the firm is incorporated in the price of the stock of the firm. The strong form tests are concerned with whether investors or investor groups have monopolistic access in determining the price of a stock. The semi strong form tests imply the prices are adjusted according to the information available about the firm in their announcements to the public, such as announcements of annual earnings, the stock splits etc. that the firm has witnessed. The weak form efficiency is such a test, where only the historical prices of stocks have been displayed to the public and no other details about the firm is divulged. Fama describes the market e fficiency hypothesis to be very simple, which simply points out that the market price of a stock represents all the vital information about the firm. The second concept, which Fama stated with respect to the efficient market hypothesis, was the concept of market efficiency, which can be rejected only with a rejection of the

Japan's ODA in China Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Japan's ODA in China - Research Paper Example It is strange; however, that Japan has not completely ended its ODA efforts in China despite the problems that it is facing. It seems that Japan has a more well thought plan about ODA to China, a plan that is not affected by the short run but concentrates on objectives that could work out well for Japan as the Asia region become more stable. My hypothesis is that Japan wants to provide ODA to China because it seeks to create an atmosphere where it can prosper economically and politically. It is true that there have been instances where there was a chance of the removal of the assistance for example after the Tiananmen Square incident and during the war. However it seems that Japan is moving beyond an economic-centred foreign policy programme. Rather my hypothesis is that Japan is trying to play a tit for tat game here. It seeks to give additional aid to China so that China is willing to abide the international laws and norms. This would lead to the creation of both a political and an economic environment that may be helpful in the development of trade and foreign direct investment and may also be lead to the institutionalization of democracy. Japan’s ODA in China is a topic which has attracted a lot of attention. A lot of scholars have searched about the issue out of the curiosity of Japan’s actions. For many, Japan’s actions are an attempt to contribute towards world peace. For others, however, the acceptance of the giving of trade is a part of the strategic policy of Japan that aims to paint a rosy picture of Japan in international relations. Many scholars have studied the trends in the periods of Japan-China assistance. Wu, for example, divides them into three time periods, the development time, the adjustment time and the conversion time (Wu, 2008). The development time was from the year 1979 to 1989 when Japan was

Friday, August 23, 2019

Trait of Effective Communication Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Trait of Effective Communication - Essay Example Not to forget though, that effective communication may also be defined as the way a person uses his body language in order to convey his message. This can be done through the nod of the head, raising of the eyebrow, hunching of the shoulders... Any of these aforementioned method of communication can be taken to define what effective communication is all about. 2. There are two traits that are necessary in effective communication. The first trait is speaking clearly. By speaking clearly and properly explaining what it is that you wish to have another person understand, he will be able to get a clear grasp of what it is that you are trying to say. Being sure to use words that you are sure the person one is speaking to can understand, one can be sure that his message will definitely be received and understood. The second important trait of effective communication has everything to do with the ability of a person to listen attentively and actively. By listening attentively, one is able t o concentrate on the message being delivered by the person speaking. It will also allow for a better analysis of the discussion and active participation as one will be able to properly pose clarification questions whenever the need arises. 3. An example of a communication break that can occur which can result in the distorting of a message often occurs with the written word. This is because the written word can change its meaning depending upon the punctuation used or the mistaken context of a message. Something as simple as â€Å"Dont rush me! Im leaving now!† in a text message can either be taken as an angry message by the receiver or as a message of excitement. All depending upon the way that the message was perceived by the other side. On the other hand, a message such as â€Å"Dont bother. I can do it.† when spoken can be taken as either exasperated, angry, or simply a statement by the person hearing it. All depending upon the vocal intonation of the speaker.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Richard Branson and the Virgin Group of Companies in 2007 Essay Example for Free

Richard Branson and the Virgin Group of Companies in 2007 Essay A. Problem Summary â€Å"Richard, you will end up in prison or as a millionaire†. These are the words of the headmaster of Stowe, a private boarding school Branson dropped out at 17. His success started by publishing a magazine called Student, then he moved on to mail order records. This is where the Virgin Group started. Richard Branson has developed his brand in a large variety of markets. The over-familiarity of the Virgin brand has caused the consumers to not take the brand in a serious manner. One might argue that he stretched his brand too thin. This lack of focus and over-diversification could result in further over investments in projects that do not hold a steady future. In this paper we will brake down the strategic of sense of apparent entrepreneurial chaos. We will address topics such as key resources, dominant logic, characteristics of markets that conform to this logic, and designing a corporate strategy and structure. B. Analysis †¢ Key Resources o Virgin Brand The Virgin name is the group’s most important asset. The group is involved in a variety of different business ranging from airlines, books, jewelry to limousines. The Virgin Brand strives for value for money, good quality, brilliant customer service, innovation, competitively challenging and fun. The customers receive these attributes in a variety of ways. This is the brand’s competitive advantage. o Branson Branson’s eccentric personality, laid-back look and charisma are the essence of the Virgin brand. Branson embodied the spirit of â€Å"New Britain† to his generation because of his image and entrepreneurial spirit. Branson acted as a magnet for potential entrepreneurs; his brand actively encouraged the creating of fresh business ideas to its development office in London, Sidney and New York. Branson’s opposition to corporate offices led him to conduct business from family homes, houseboats, and vacation homes. His image exuded a carefree approach to exploring new ventures. Branson was impressed by the Japanese approach to business. Their long-term development and focus on organic growth were the key points Branson admired. His networking skills started a very young age. His first team was comprised of childhood friend Nik Powell, and affluent individuals such as Simon Draper and Mike Oldfield. Key management of the Virgin Group is the informal relations between Branson and a small core of long-term associates who form the senior management team of the group. Branson considers cash flow and capital value as important performance indicators, rather than concentrating in accounting profits. His tendency to avoid short-term taxable profits makes his approach ideal, concentrating in long-term capital growth instead. †¢ Dominant Logic The ability of the Virgin Group to operate effectively with so little structure or management systems owes much to the group’s unique organizational culture. This is defined almost entirely by Branson’s management style. His style reflects his sense of fun, disrespect for hierarchy and formal authority, commitment to employees and consumers and belief in hard work and individual responsibility. †¢ Characteristics of Markets that Conform to this Logic o Consumer Branson wanted to offer consumers a â€Å"new deal† by continually being on the lookout for business opportunities. Branson did so by involving venture with direct sales to consumers and passing on the cost savings from bypassing traditional distribution channels. o Dominant Incumbent Branson’s Virgin Travel is the dominant incumbent Virgin brand company. Post 2002 recovery in the airline industry, Virgin Travel was able to turn the largest profit of the Virgin Groups. o High Entry Barriers to Other Start-ups The airline and galactic companies both involve high entry barriers and significant start up costs. In addition to costs, Branson also had to negotiate with governments in order to receive approval. o Branson/Virgin Image Appeals to Customers Branson believed in multiple companies interlocking through managerial and equity linkages in a collaborative network. He accomplished this by having small companies combined and believes â€Å"small is beautiful† with strength through unity. Branson is a strong advocate of sticking it to the large corporations. †¢ Designing a Corporate Strategy and Structure o Business Model Virgin Group is built upon the theory of creating an entrepreneurial incubator and diversifying the corporation as much as possible. Branson does not want his best people to leave the company and start their own ventures. Instead, he prefers to develop them into millionaires within. The company is focused on diversifying into many markets. Some of these markets include travel, jewelry, entertainment, records, and mobile. His corporate strategy is focused on cash flow and capital value. He wants to increase his company’s real value and a long-term cash generation potential. He does not care about his accounting profit. o Type of Structure The Virgin Group is structured as if they are 150 small companies. Each one stands on its own two feet, as if they are their own companies. Employees have a stake in their success. They feel they are crucial to their individual company because they are one-in-fifty or one-in a hundred instead of one-in-tens-of-thousands. All of the companies are under the Virgin umbrella, but none of them are looked at, as simply a subsidiary. C. Alternatives As for the scope for New Approaches to Customer Service, Branson wants to create value for the customers entering with a new anti-establishment attitude, which sought to offer customers a better alternative. Branson hoped to bring a breath of fresh air. Virgin’s brilliant customer service approach strived to be â€Å"friendly, human, and relaxed; professional but not corporate†. According to the financial results of select Virgin Companies from 2004 to 2006. Virgin Retail Limited had a negative net profit in 2004. This branch of Virgin could be looked at to potentially divest. In order to maintain the Virgin name a success. Branson may look to consolidate some of his different brands in the future. With the threat of Britain’s capital gains tax laws, this could eliminate the advantages of multiple off shore companies, which Branson is involved in. D. Recommendation We feel the best alternative for Branson and his Virgin Brand would be to look into divesting out of some markets and focusing more on a smaller scale. Richard should look into investing more into the companies that are performing well and stray from unprofitable, high-risk markets. If Branson looks at the financial standpoint of his companies and possibly divest in the poor performing ones, he could potentially be more successful. Overall, Branson has been mostly successful in his quest for Virgin dominance. There is some room for improvement in Branson’s strategies; however, he is going to do what Branson wants to do. And this strategy has obviously been successful thus far.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Law Essays Capital Punishment

Law Essays Capital Punishment Does capital punishment have a deterrent effect on crime? Analyse this question with reference to either the UK or USA. Introduction Nowadays, in most of the Western world, capital punishment is considered an unacceptable, barbaric sentence that cannot be morally or philosophically justified. In the UK, it has been abolished since 1969, while Protocol six of the European Convention on Human Rights obliged the forty six member states of the Council of Europe to scribe off the death sentence from their penal codes. However, a number of US states retain the sentence with few politicians and theorists claiming that it has a strong deterrent effect. The purpose of this essay is to critically reflect upon this argument. Is capital punishment a worthwhile deterrent? The punishment theory of deterrence – which belongs to the utilitarian philosophy – is composed of two elements. The first is called specific/individual deterrence and is directed towards convicted offenders. In broad terms it aims to discourage them for their transgressions and thereby convincing them that crime does not pay. The second is called general deterrence and is directed towards potential offenders. It seeks to persuade them by the threat of anticipated punishment from engaging in unlawful conduct by illustrating the unsavoury consequences of offending. Therefore, by definition, capital punishment cannot fulfil the first element of deterrence since after its passing, the convicted offender dies. As for the second element of passing a lesson to the rest of the society, the views are mixed; although there is evidence to suggest that the impact of capital sentence is not as great as it would justify it. For example, according to Katz et al, the so far studies on capital punishment produce erratic and contradictory results, while most of them find that there is no deterrent effect. In fact, Shepherd’s 2004 study showed that executions are as likely to increase homicides in states following execution as there are states where there seems to be a reduction. In addition, a number of research experts have heavily criticised the so far positive studies on capital punishment for being methodologically unviable. For instance, Maltz recent evaluation showed that most of US studies ignored large amounts of missing data, relying only on two sources: the Bureau of Justice Statistics of the US Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Investigation.   Even more importantly, studies that directly examine the reactions of individuals to punishment threats constituently show the limits of the assumptions of rationality that underlie deterrence. In fact, according to the Annual Statistical Report of the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections, most offenders who are convicted to a capital sentence have cognitive impairments. This makes it even more unlikely that they are actually aware of executions. On the other hand, states without capital punishment such as New York enjoy declining homicide rates. The Uniform Crime Reports showed that over the last decade there was a 65.5% decrease in homicide rates. Similarly, Dugan et al showed that since the early 1970s intimate or domestic homicides have been declining at a steady pace regardless of fluctuations in the number of executions. Finally, according to the forthcoming study by Professor Berk, nearly all of the presumed deterrent effects of capital punishment are confined in one state – Texas – and only for a handful of years when there were more than 5 executions. Overall, the study proved that eliminating Texas eliminates any hint of deterrence from the relationship between execution and crime. Moving beyond the statistics However, it is not just the negative statistics that make capital punishment increasingly unfamiliar. Carter showed that offenders who are convicted to capital punishment usually come from poor backgrounds introducing an element of class discrimination in the sentencing system. Similarly, Keil and Vito’s study reported that blacks who kill whites seem to have the greater odds of receiving the death penalty than whites who kill blacks†. To conclude, the last two year research data show that capital punishment has hardly any deterrence effect, while a number of other side issues such as discrimination and selectivity reinforce the argument against its use. Berk, Richard. 2005 forthcoming. New Claims about executions and General Deterrence: D ej a vu all over again? Journal of Empirical Legal Studies. Carter, Robert. 1965. The Johny Cain Story: A Composite of Men Executed in California. Issues in Criminology 1:66. Dugan, Laura, Daniel Nagin, and Richard Rosenfeld. 1999. Explaining the Decline in Intimate Partner Homicide: The effects of Changing Domesticity, Womens Status and Domestic Violence Resources. Homicide Studies 3:187. Katz, Lawrence, Steven Levitt, and Ellen Shustorovich. 2003. Prison Conditions, Capital Punishment and Deterrence. American Law and Economics Review 5:318. Keil, Thomas and Gennaro Vito. 1989. Race, Homicide Severity and the Application of the Death Penalty. Criminology 27:511. Maltz, Michael. 2004. The Effect of NIBRS Reporting on Item Missing Data in Murder Cases. Homicide Studies 8:193. Parisi, Francisco and Vermon Smith. 2005. Introduction in the Law and Economics of Irrational Behaviour: In press. Shepherd, Joanna. 2004. Deterrence versus Brutalization: Capital Punishments Differering Impacts Among States. Working Paper, Emory University Law School.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Outsourcing ICT In The Tesco Company

Outsourcing ICT In The Tesco Company This is a report about Tescos company ICT outsourcing, knowledge management and knowledge management systems. In the following paragraphs two questions are going to be answered and analyzed according to the information existing in Tescos case. Outsourcing ICT is quite commonly used by organizations as an approach to strategic management. Access the advantages and disadvantages that outsourcing can bring in developing effective uses of information systems in an organization such as Tesco. The great competition and the global economic crisis that organizations have to face nowadays, made Information Communications Technology outsourcing a really attractive management tool in order to cut expenses in non-core activities, specific in overheads of Information Technology departments. By deciding to outsource, there would be a lot of benefits but also a number of risks associated with it. It is important for a decision maker to be aware of the advantages and disadvantages of ICT outsourcing, before making the decision to outsource. Outsourcing ICT has to do with the whole existing information in the business field. It is about networks, web design, programming, online shops etc. Network services is the most common ICT services activity outsourced and outsourcers who do not comply with contract will badly influence the organizations process in a very risky way. The Technology of information and communication is growing fast and the vendor business has to be updated and synchronized with the era of 2010. So it would be far easier for them to sell their products and serving their customers in every possible way. Big organizations that have to deal with so many products from soap to bread it would be more difficult to take the risk and create their own Information and communication department from scratch and keep it upgraded while their whole process is running. The result of this difficulty in Tescos case is to outsource ICT specific functions to Trilogy Company. The advantages of outsourcing ICT in an organization such as Tesco. ICT is vital to Tesco. Every aspect of their operation is controlled or monitored by ICT stock, distribution, payroll, communication methods, and so on. ICT is essential to the running of a modern store. It is used for planning, monitoring, auditing and communicating between store operations. For example, when an item has its barcode read at the checkout, the system not only logs the price onto the till, but also logs the financial transaction between Tesco and the customer and the fact that the stock has been reduced by one item. This shows the integration of departments by using ICT. All stores are connected to the mainframe at Head Office via the Tesco Network. Another advantage of Outsourcing ICT from a business perspective is that organizations are realizing that owning and operating their own IT infrastructure no longer makes sense. The cost of that is much bigger and the results are never guaranteed. This coupled with the common resource lack make outsourcing a viable alternative. It is very important for organizations to adopt the right approach of outsourcing ICT in order to have benefits. The outsourced ICT selected company they are going to cooperate with, must follow certain organizations demands. First they have to manage well specific ICT functions in stages, to work with responsibility over review performance, to make adjustments and to support technically with experienced system engineers. The gained confidence and in-house acceptance by the organization as well a very good relationship and cooperation will give the best benefits in the organizations performance. With the right approach and the suitable outsourcing of ICT the organizations will manage to stay high at the competitive edge in the market. Serving the customers in the best way and surprising with new ways of purchasing their products (for ex. via online-shops), their loyalty will be kept and the margins will be increased. A big company like Tesco has many sub-stores, some in the same country and some abroad. The communication between them and the line the company sets everywhere should be well established. ICT helps in this area and it is the primary reason that chain branches use ICT. In summary outsourcing ICT for a company such as Tesco is important for increasing the ability to reach the goals of the company, reduce human risks, saving time, helping the company to stay competitive and minimize the operating costs. The Disadvantages of Outsourcing ICT in an organization such as Tesco. As it was already mentioned above, the outsourcing ICT has also disadvantages that raise the risk the company has to take. For example, at times, it is more cost-effective to conduct a particular business process, rather than outsourcing it, not that much in IT but maybe the companys upgrade wants are small and opposed to the ICT Companys big fees. When you begin to outsource your business processes, you might find it difficult to manage the offshore provider when compared to managing processes within your organization. In case, your outsource ICT service provider becomes bankrupt or goes out of business, your organization will have to transfer immediately the business processes in-house or find another outsourcing provider The employees in your organization might not like the idea of outsourcing your processes and they might express lack of interest or lack of quality at work. Also outsourcing can create potential redundancies for your organization because a lot of employees may lose their jobs. Your outsourcing provider might not be the right who is providing services for your organization. Also the quality of the service isnt always guaranteed, especially in low-price agreements. Since your provider might be catering the needs of several companies, there might be not be complete devotion to you and your company something that shouldnt happen if you own the ICT department. In outsourcing, you may lose control over the process that is outsourced and dont be able to fix something in time because you are not in charge of this field. Outsourcing, though cost-effective, might have hidden costs, such as the legal costs incurred while signing a contract between companies and you might also have to spend a lot of time and effort in getting the contract signed. There can be several disadvantages in outsourcing, such as, renewing contracts, misunderstanding of the contract, lack of communication, poor quality and delayed services amongst others. The disadvantages of outsourcing give to organizations an opportunity to think about what they are stepping into. However if you find a reliable outsourcing partner you probably wont face any of these disadvantages of outsourcing. Question 2 What do you understand by Knowledge management and knowledge management systems? Analyze how useful such a system could be to Tesco and why it is often difficult to persuade employees to use such systems. Knowledge Management refers to the process of collecting the gathered experience of a company or organization, whether it is in databases or documents, or even in the minds of executives of the company or organization and then share it and use it at those parts of the business that will provide the maximum contributory benefit. KM has been growing rapidly in the last years as a business model. More and more businesses and organizations have developed stores of knowledge related to customer service, product development, human resource management, etc. This fact also created new jobs related to knowledge management and made a necessity for the existence of knowledge management in a modern business and the need for trained managers to be responsible for the process. Nowadays fields like media, information, computer science, public policy and public health have started contributing to Knowledge Management research. Also non-profit organizations and huge companies have resources specific to internal Knowledge Management efforts, usually as a part of their business strategy, human resource management and information technology departments. There are many consulting companies that advice and provide strategy regarding KM to the organizations. For the better use of Knowledge Management the companies needed to use Knowledge Management Systems   mostly IT based systems that manage the knowledge in companies , gather it, storage it and sharing it as information. Such systems as Software tools, databases, networks, Internet access, worldwide communication etc. A KM system is needed to enable employees to have quick access to the organizations databases, sources of information, and solutions, this is mainly helping to encourage innovation and improve efficiency. When employees have the knowledge or information and are able to use it at the right time, relationships with customers, suppliers and dealers improve. These workers are able to make better decisions by using the information that their company gives them access to. How useful such a system could be to Tesco and why it is often difficult to persuade employees to use such systems. A Company like Tesco today has to gather the wisdom and knowledge as fast as they can. Share the results across the rest of their branches and at the same time continue to develop and share new knowledge. Tescos leaders know how serious is to let the knowledge flow within the organization. Tesco is consist of 220,000 human beings, which means that is necessary to make an environment that would help their staff feel motivated and valued with return the better service to their customers. Loyalty is basically driven by personal relationships and the employees are the face of the company when a customer enters a Tesco branch. From the results of the projects that have been taking place they realized that there were customers who were not experiencing warm and friendly service from Tesco and that internal levels of staff morale were suffering in reaction to increasingly ambitious cost and efficiency targets in stores. Trilogy (WhatIf, InterAction and Bridge consulting companies) was hired by Tesco to help transform the quality of its customer service and raise it to the market-leading standard. To reach the needs of Tescos millions of customers Trilogy developed the Living Service Programme. The main idea of this concept was to change for the best. It was also clear that its aim was the change of process and not the change of the people but by, with and for Tesco people. In many ways the Living Service Programme is Tescos recognition, through committed investment of time and money. Among the projects significant intangible benefits is the widely noted enhancement in the quality of dialogue and communication within stores. Staffs report that the them and us culture is practically a thing of the past, with deep effects on the work climate and employee attitudes to the company. The programme was designed to improve commitment bottom-up as well top-down in the organization and this needed to be clear to avoid the misunderstandings. It was undertaken by 660 stores in 26 weeks, in this period the staff trained to provide excellent service and cooperation with the other employees and also using the knowledge/information when needed. The usefulness of LSProgramme was obvious to the head managers of Tesco and the Trilogy Company but from the employees there was skepticism. People often feel vulnerable to the importation of techniques that may appear to criticize their behavior, values, and styles of interaction. Also Initiatives with really innovative attributes may be treated with suspicion if they come from the organizations leadership because their apparent oddity can be interpreted as a failure to understand the day to day reality of the business. One of the key enemies of change is the perception that change is being imposed by one group upon another. Tesco managed to redirect the evolution of its culture in a way that keyed into its employees beliefs and motivations while focusing faithfully on the needs of its customers. This was a project in which the personal became the practical: a case of cultural change carried out at the human scale, person by person, and action by action.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Free News in a Linked World Essay -- Internet Web Media Papers

Free News in a Linked World We usually classify communication media in three categories: published media, broadcast media and what Chris Chesher calls â€Å"invocational media†.1 The published media include newspapers, magazines and books. Radio and television are broadcast media — I would add speech as a nontechnological broadcast medium also. Invocational media represent communication tools used on interactive and networked digital computers.2 News delivery is present on every communication medium. I will look at the difference in value of the content between the media. And I will explain how the World Wide Web — as a new invocational medium — will bring back a public discourse based on logic and reason. And how it will re-democratize the libertarian press. Comparative Descriptions In published media — the oldest technological news distribution method — news is provided on a physical support on which alphabetical characters and images are printed. The support — a newspaper for example — must be distributed, and the user must acquire it. There is a sense of possession, of ownership evoked by the object. The content is made of texts, photographs and illustrations. It is self contained and can be consulted anywhere, at any time and in any way. Broadcast media are part of late nineteenth and twentieth century’s technological innovation. The technology behind broadcast news is based on linear streams of communicative content emitted from a base and transmitted through different means — copper cable or wave for example. To be able to view or hear the news, the user must acquire a receiving machine. Content is sent in real time and has no physical representation. News can be transmitted as it happens, but the user must be avai... 14. From [] References Chesher, Chris â€Å"Why the Digital Computer is Dead† 04-04-2002 Howe, Denis editor, Free On-line Dictionary of Computing Mann, Steve Mann, Steve with Hal Niedzviecki, Cyborg: Digital Destiny and Human Possibility in the Age of the Wearable Computer Double Day Canada, 2001 Markoff, John â€Å"Chapter 23 The Scribe† in John Brockman, Digerati Negroponte, Nicholas Being Digital Vintage Books, 1996 Postman, Neal Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business Penguin Books, 1986 Sormany, Pierre Le mà ©tier de journaliste: Guide des outils et des pratiques du journalisme au Quà ©bec Borà ©al, 1990

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Magical Realism and Quantum Physics :: Magical Realism Literature

Magical Realism and Quantum Physics The term Magical Realism is said to have started with the German art critic Franz Roh, who used the trem to describe the return of art to Realism from Expressionism. The term Magical Realism has also been used to categorize some the novels and short stories of authors such as Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Gunter Grass, and John Fowls. These writers use techniques that combine the real and unreal in ways that make them believable and acceptable by both the reader and characters in the stories. These techniques also can be said to correspond with fields of study such as quantum physics. One of these techniques that can be connected to the field of quantum physics is the "closeness or near-merging of two realms, two worlds" (Faris). This technique was used in Gabriel Marquez's short story "Light is Like Water" when the two brothers Toto and Joel used a metaphor to make the two realms of imagination and reality become close to one another. According to some quantum physicists, this merging could theoretically happen. If quantum physicists were to read "Light is Like Water," I believe that they would come to the conclusion that a 'wormhole' had opened between two existing parallel universes and allowed such an event to take place. In his book HYPERSPACE: A Scientific Odyssey Through Parallel Universes, Time Warps, and the Tenth Dimension Michio Kaku states that: Normally, life proceeds on each of these parallel planes independent of the others. On rare occasions, however, the planes may intersect and, for a brief moment, tear the fabric of space itself, which opens up a hole- or gateway- between these two universes. (23) This intersecting of planes of existence seems to have happened in "Light is Like Water." I believe the reason that Magical Realism has become such a popular genre is because the events that happen are believable and can be done without the aid of machines. Magical Realism also gives people a break from reality without really leaving the reality that they have come to know and trust. It also gives a look at things that we have overlooked in our busy lives.

joshua Essay -- essays research papers fc

Joshua Moses said to Joshua, â€Å"Choose some of our men and go out to fight the Amalekites. Tomorrow I will stand on top of the hill with the staff of God in my hands.† Exodus 17:9 This is the first passage of scripture where you find Joshua. There is a law called the law of first mention. The law of first mention is a principle that requires one to take a fraction of Scriptures where a principle, expression, or act is mentioned for the first time, in the Bible, and to study the first occurrence of this in order to get the fundamental inbuilt meaning of that principle, expression, or act. When this law is applied the simple meaning usually goes before the complex. Throughout the history of a term it may have grown in its meaning and undergone certain changes, yet the basic, original, fundamental thought is rarely lost. The fundamental concept more often than not controls the understanding of any idea expressed by a term in its present-day usage. Here Joshua is mentioned as a warrior and also a leader in battle. This view does not change throughout the Scriptures. It may add to this meaning, but it is never done away with. Joshua throughout the Bible remains a leader, and a warrior for the Most High God. How was Joshua such a great leader? He was dependant on, and faithful to God. He also took the commission given to him by Moses and God, and made it a lifestyle. What was this great commission? You can find it in Deuteronomy. Then Moses summoned Joshua and said to him in the presence of all Israel, â€Å"Be strong and courageous, for you must go with this people into the land that the LORD swore to their forefathers to give them, and you must divide it among them as their inheritance.† Deuteronomy 31:7 This commission given by Moses to Joshua was reaffirmed by the Lord. The LORD gave this command to Joshua son of Nun: â€Å"Be strong and courageous, for you will bring the Israelites into the land I promised them on oath, and I myself will be with you.† Deuteronomy 31:23 Now what did that mean to Joshua? Well, take the first part, â€Å"Be strong† (à §Ãƒ ¦Ãƒ ·). The Hebrew word there is châzaq. The definition is: To strengthen, prevail, harden, be strong, become strong, be courageous, be firm, grow firm, and be resolute. 1 Now take the second part, â€Å"Courageous.† The Hebrew word here is âmats (à  Ãƒ ®Ãƒ µ). The definition is: To be strong, alert, courageous, brave, stout... ...ccomplish through the Holy Spirit. The power did not die in the New Testament, it was transferred. It is not only given to the select anymore. It is given to the ones who have chosen to choose. No more is it given by some miracle from heaven. It is given to those who choose to take the call. To those who are willing. God will give it to those who live lives of trusting faithfulness. God is going to do a work. There is a battle taking place in the heavenlies. Are you ready? Are you willing? I say to now go into the world and be strong and courageous. The Lord is with you. Bibliography Drucker, Reuven. Inheriting the Land. Grand Rapids: Erdmans, 1983. Hawk, L. Daniel. Joshua. Berit Olam. Collegeville, Minnesota Hess, Richard. Joshua. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 19--. Woudstra, Marten H. Joshua. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Erdmans, 1981. Curtis, Adrian H. W. Joshua. Old Testament Guide. Sheffield: Sheffield. 19--. Drucker, Reuven. Yehoshua/ Joshua. Brooklyn Mesorah Publications, Ltd., 1982. Stern, David H. Complete Jewish Bible. Jewish New Testament Publications Inc. Clarksville, Maryland, USA. 1998.

Saturday, August 17, 2019


American Association of Medical Assistants Jennifer Lingler LIBS 100: Information Literacy Bryant & Stratton April 14, 2010 Introduction As a result of the expanding healthcare industry, technological advances in medicine, and increased number of elderly in the United States, medical assisting is one of the nation’s fastest growing careers. The extensive and unique knowledge of a medical assistant is in demand more than ever. It is imperative that a medical assistant is knowledgeable and current about changes in the healthcare field. It is also important that a medical assistant’s rights to practice are protected on the job. The American Association of Medical Assistants (or AAMA) is an organization that was created to aid and support medical assistants working in the healthcare field (AAMA, 2010). Any individual interested in a career in medical assisting would benefit from becoming a member of this organization. Mission and Purpose The AAMA is the only organization created solely for the medical assisting profession. The mission of the American Association of Medical Assistants is to enable medical assisting professionals to enhance and demonstrate the knowledge, skills and professionalism required by employers and patients; protect medical assistants' right to practice; and promote effective, efficient health care delivery through optimal use of the CMA (AAMA)† (AAMA, 2010). The AAMA was created for medical assistant students, practicing medical assistants, and medical assistant educators (AAMA, 2 010). Local AAMA Chapter The AAMA was created in 1955 and has grown to include over 325 local chapters throughout a total of 43 states (AAMA, 2010). One local Ohio chapter of the AAMA is the Ohio State Society of Medical Assistants. In 1956, four Ohio medical assistants attended an AAMA meeting in Kansas City, Kansas. Although there were three existing Ohio chapters, these women had a desire to form an organization that would be a part of the AAMA. Meetings were held from April seventeenth through April twenty-eighth of nineteen fifty-seven. After two days of deliberations the Ohio State Society of Medical Assistants was created. The OSSMA would then be approved by the AAMA on June eighth of nineteen fifty-eight (OSSMA, 2010). Membership A medical assistant graduate from an accredited school is eligible for membership with the AAMA. The graduate must fill out an application with the AAMA and pay an enrollment fee of one-hundred and twenty-five dollars. According to the AAMA, â€Å"The Certification Department will inform you of your application status within 30 days of the date you mailed your application†¦. After your application has been approved and processed, you will receive a scheduling permit approximately three weeks prior to your testing start date with instructions for making an appointment at a Prometric test center in your area. The exam may be taken throughout the year† (2010). Upon passing the exam, a medical assistant can expect to receive an official certificate and AAMA card (AAMA, 2010) The AAMA requires members to recertify every sixty months. Recertification may be obtained through further education or examination. Recertification will cost an AAMA member two-hundred and fifty dollars (AAMA, 2010) Benefits There are numerous benefits available to AAMA members. The first benefit is a subscription to CMA Today. AAMA member receive this bimonthly publication automatically when they become members. CMA Today â€Å"provides educational articles, current medical news, health policy updates, and association happenings† (AAMA, 2010). AAMA members also receive discounts on AAMA self-study courses and conference workshops which can be useful educational tool throughout their medical assisting career. Low member rates are also available for credit cards, loans, and insurance to AAMA members. The greatest benefit for an AAMA member is the opportunity to communicate, share information, and network with other medical assistants in the health care industry (AAMA, 2010). Conclusion The American Association of Medical Assistants is the only organization created solely for the medical assisting profession. Any individual interested in a medical assisting career would benefit from becoming a member of this organization. The American Association of Medical Assistants official website states it best, â€Å"When you join the AAMA you are investing in your career and your future. And, you are strengthening an association that has your professional interests at heart† (AAMA, 2010). References American Association of Medical Assistants. (2010). AAMA Mission Statement. Retrieved from http://www. aama-ntl. org/about/mission. spx American Association of Medical Assistants. (2010). AAMA Services. Retrieved from http://www. aama-ntl. org/about/services. aspx American Association of Medical Assistants. (2010). How to Become a CMA (AAMA). Retrieved from http://www. aama-ntl. org/becomeCMA/how. aspx American Association of Medical Assistants. (2010). What is a CMA (AAMA)? Retrieved from http://www. aama-ntl. org/about/what_is_a_cma. aspx Ohio State Society of Medical Assistants. (2010). OSSMA History. Retrieved from http://www. ossma. org/historyofOSSMA. html

Friday, August 16, 2019

Interview Skills Essay

1. List three key components involved in the communication process. †¢Sender (encoder). †¢Channel (Message). †¢Receiver (Decoder). 2. Identify three key characteristics of effective communication and briefly explain their impact on the communication process. Openness is a key characteristic of communication, as by listening with an open mind and showing genuine interest, the relationship and trust between the client and counsellor grows. Openness with body language is also important, as it lets the client know you are being honest and congruent. Empathy is another important characteristic, as by being empathetic you are concerned, understand, and care for the client thereby making a warm, friendly environment that is safe for the client to be able to talk freely. Thirdly, positiveness is important in communication. Using positive rather than negative messages, both verbal and non-verbal, shows the client that you respect them, their beliefs and believe in their ability to gain personal awareness and growth. 3. In the communication processes between a client and a counsellor, barriers may be present. List three specific communication barriers. †¢Environment. †¢Timing. †¢Perceptions. 4. Take one of the communication barriers given in your answer to the question above, and briefly describe how you would apply strategies to overcome these barriers. Environmental factors can be a barrier to listening as outside noise, telephones and even other people talking can distract you from getting a clear message and understanding of what the client is saying. To avoid this clients should be seen in a fairly soundproof room, with the windows and door shut to cut out excess noise. Also if possible, your phone should be on silent, so as not to distract either yourself or your client’s line of thought. 5. List two basic micro-skills of counselling and briefly describe how they can be used to facilitate the relationship between counsellor and client. To facilitate a good client and counsellor relationship, the use of active listening is very important so as the client feels they are heard, understood and respected. The counsellor needs to focus on what is being said, as well as how it is said, so they get a clear understanding. The counsellor also has to not let listening barriers distract them or the client. Barriers can include; judging, filtering, day dreaming or environmental factors. Paraphrasing is another micro-skill that builds a good rapport. By the counsellor picking the most important details and reflecting them back to the client, they are clarifying what has been said and the client knows that the counsellor is listening and understands what they are saying. Paraphrasing also help build trust and promotes sharing. 6. List one advanced micro-skill of counselling and briefly explain how it can be used in the counselling process. One advanced micro-skill of counselling is to challenge the client. This is used in the counselling process to assist making the client aware of faulty thinking, self-limiting and destructive behaviours and beliefs. It is very important though, to only use this micro-skill once the counsellor has built a good relationship with the client, and then, it should only be used where really necessary. Then with this new awareness, hopefully, the client is open to explore more positive beliefs, thinking and behaviours.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Promoting Cognitive Development Essay

The best thing my family said about me when I was young was how smart I appeared to be. I had been a participant in the elementary school science fair; it always takes place in the spring time of the school year in May- It is a traditional school event. I was only in third grade, I had to be creative and come up with a science project for the science fair. My teacher suggested that all of the students go to the library and research some science books to pick a project. I remember not having a lot of self-esteem, so I did not think I could accomplish the task. I found a short story in a book about a plant without a root, so I decided to grow a plant without a root in an egg shell, my mother helped me put the project together and she was very encouraging and helpful for my self-esteem. My science project was a success and I won first prize. This was one of the best days in my life and my family was so proud of me, they all told me I was very smart and to keep up the good work. They were especially proud because I found the book and made the decision on my own do the project that made me a winner. According to Vygotsky, education should focus on activities that involve interaction with others. Both child–adult and child–child interactions can provide the potential for cognitive growth† (Feldman, page 301). Children develop a sense of competence roughly around age 6 to 12, in their elementary school years; theorists Erik Erikson believes these years are the industry-versus-inferiority stage; these years are very important for children to understand concepts and challenges that are prepared for them by their peers, parents and school. My mother was the person that made me feel so great about myself, as she often did. She put my plant without a root science project on display in our home for all to see, and she just bragged to everyone that came to the house and she was calling people on the phone telling whoever called the house; she was would brag and tell them how smart I was and how proud she was of my winning first place in the school science fair. I had and still have the strangest nickname, my mother named me Toby Margo Barr. But my nickname is Trisha. The story behind having two real names is because my godmother wanted to name me Patricia. My mother decided that Trisha could be my nickname, she really liked Toby and she promised to name me after a Jewish woman that she knew way before I was conceived. She said the woman looked the spitting image of Elizabeth Taylor. I actually very much disliked the name Toby and wished my real name was Patricia; everyone thought Toby was my nick name anyway because it sounds more like a nickname. My family members never told me what I would end up doing or becoming, they valued the fact that I just had to work. My mother wanted me to have an office job, because I took up office practice in high school. I wanted to work in an office setting, but it was hard to accomplish in the small town I grew up and lived in. It was predominately white and there was a lot of prejudices in the town back them. My family would have described me as a good kid; I was mannerly and respectful to others, very disciplined as well when I was a child and adolescent. I remember being afraid a lot and having low self-esteem. I did not like being a dark-skinned person especially in an all white town and school- it also seemed if you were light-skinned life was a little better, I was bullied and teased by both blacks and whites. I started to rebel as a teenager and did what teens do when they are insecure, like smoking pot and cigarettes. This is when my parents would say I gave them grief. My family was concerned I would get in trouble and end up dealing with the law. Elementary-school-age children begin to follow the same sort of reasoning when they seek to understand how able they are. When they were younger, they tended to consider their abilities in terms of some hypothetical standard, making a judgment that they are good or bad in an absolute sense. Children begin to use social comparison processes, comparing themselves to others; Vygotsky‘s approach has been particularly influential in the development of several classroom practices based on the proposition that children should actively participate in their educational experiences. In this approach, classrooms are seen as places where children should have the opportunity to experiment and try out new activities.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

How to Learn a Foreign Language Essay

There are three steps that can help people to learn a foreign language. First, you should learn some history and origin of the language. That is the first and most important step because it can increase your interest in studying the language. For instance, if you plan to study Chinese, you should know about some history such as that Chinese developed from the pictograph. That can help you to understand some words like the sign that describes the word human in Chinese is basically two lines shaped like a person’s legs. In other words, you can learn some history and origin of the language to get more interest in it. Then, you should learn some rudimentary knowledge of the language. That can help you laying a strong foundation of the language. To do this, you should study grammar, vocabulary, and some basic skills of the language. In order that, you can buy some books that can teach some basic knowledge of the language. Also, you can take some language classes at school to improve your language proficiency. Therefore, if you use some ways to study and consolidate your rudimentary knowledge of the language, you can learn advanced knowledge of the language more easily. Eventually, you should learn some advanced knowledge of the language. This can help you more easily communicate with others and read books. In other words, if you have some advanced knowledge of the language and speak very well, you cannot are lost in a different place where locals speak the language. To do this, you can join some community what their members study or use the language. Also, you can try reading some books, listening to music, and watching movies to achieve that. In addition, you should use the language frequently, such as by speaking with another person, because that can help you to keep an improvement and avoid forgetting. In short, if you don’t want to go to a different â€Å"planet,† you should learn a foreign language by these three steps. Of course, studying is a lengthy process so that you should keep interest and keep going. All in all, you can use these three steps to become a more knowledgeable person who can use another language.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Impulsive buying in luxury consumption among Chinese consumers ( table Dissertation

Impulsive buying in luxury consumption among Chinese consumers ( table of contents ) - Dissertation Example The number of affluent households (whose annual income exceed RMB 250,000) in China is expected to reach 4.4 million by 2015. With the growing affluence in China and the demand for luxury brands on the rise, marketers need to evaluate the needs and wants of the luxury consumers. Thus, with the aim to evaluate impulsive consumer buying behaviour in the luxury segment in China, three objectives were stated and all the three objectives have been met. The study finds that consumer buying behaviour is influenced by the internal and external factors. The thought process and emotions behind consumer decisions, the environmental variables, the motivations, the individual differences and personal factors influence the purchasing decisions. The Chinese consumers associate luxury goods and consumption with culture and history, although some did associate luxury with price. Most Chinese consumers demonstrate Veblen, Snob and the Bandwagon effect, while some do lay emphasis on their own thoughts and feelings (hedonists). The Chinese consumers do attach importance to price but not too much significance to the CoO (Country-of-Origin) possibly because they follow what the others do. Culture influences the psychological factors in the luxury segment. The psychological factors include perception, attitudes, and motives towards luxury consumption. Chinese society is a collectivist society where conforming to the societal norms comes naturally to people. The growing affluence has enhanced the trend towards luxury consumption. The Chinese consumers find luxury brands deliver psychological values as it enhances their self-esteem and self-confidence. Since the Chinese consumers are affluent, status-seeking behaviour was found to influence luxury consumption. Such consumption satisfies their inner drives and gives them self-fulfillment. The Chinese consumers demonstrate impulsive buying behaviour in luxury consumption. Self-esteem and enhancing social status appear to be the strongest motivators in impulse purchase of luxury goods. Because of the impulsive tendencies they may become compulsive buyers as well. The study concludes that the consumerism has changed the way people consume. The definition of luxury too needs to be redefined as it is no more the prerogative of a few. As affluence has grown consumerism and materialism has grown which in turn has changed buying behaviour. The motives, attitudes and perceptions have undergone change and this change is ongoing. Consumers are becoming impulsive in their buying behaviour and this is predominant even in luxury consumption. The task for marketers is complex in trying to segment, target and position luxury brands. However, since impulsive buying does exist in luxury consumption, promotions can be designed to stimulate impulsive buying. The study concluded by suggesting area for further research on the subject. Table of Contents Chapter One: Introduction 1.1 Background 1 1.2 Rationale for research 2 1.3 Research Aims and Objectives 3 1.4 Structure of the Study 4 Chapter Two: Literature review 2.1 Chapter Overview 5 2.2 Consumer buying behaviour 5 2.3 Stages of consumer buying behaviour 9 2.4 Types of consumer buying behaviour 11 2.5 Factors affecting consumer buying behaviour 15 2.6 Luxury buying behaviour 18 Chapter Three: Methodology 3.1 Research Philosophy 22 3.2 Purpose of the research and phenomena 22 3.3 Epistemology 22 3.4 Research strategy 24 3.5 Data

Monday, August 12, 2019

The Relationship Between Racial Identity and PsychoSocial Outcomes Essay

The Relationship Between Racial Identity and PsychoSocial Outcomes Among African American Males - Essay Example This is when the youth experiment with all their hearts and show these outcomes to the world, of course with the world either accepting them or rejecting them in the process (Oyserman and Gant, 1996). The youth embarking on establishing who they are synthesize what they already know from their childhood, with their accumulated skills and abilities, and use these to construct their adult selves that do seems to justify who they really are. This adult self provides meaning and order to its thoughts, experiences, feelings and actions. Aside from these interior functions, it sought to motivate actions to the ones around it through providing incentives, standards, plans, strategies and rules of conduct. Thus, the adult self is a social construct, relying heavily on the support of the society, as it could be the one dictated by the inherent norms or it could be the one setting the norms. The social environment is also the background for which the youth can source the resources it needs i.e. education, economic resources to enable them to obtain the skills and characteristics to be the adult deemed worthy of their sociocultural position. This paper would posit racial identity as the dependent variable and the independent variables are the future achievements of the black male, in or outside of school, the black youth's self-esteem and image and the level of psychological distress he suffers. Adole Adolescents deciding on their future adult selves are open to seems-like limitless alternatives for them to choose from, varying only on their personal attainments and available resources. Nevertheless, adolescence has a funny way of imposing a limit on these alternatives. This limit is the belief that they cannot or do not have the capabalities to succeed in school, leading to a general decline in the interest as well as involvement in learning, in school or otherwise, increase in risky deliquent behaviors and suscpetibility to depression (Osyerman and Gant, 1996). This simply describes the plight of many youth black males. Though it is the same that they are open to experiment in their adolescence in order to determine who they are, society seems to be harder on them that the restriction adolescence impose on their supposed-to-be limitless pallet of identities to choose from is much more existent than their white peers. Therefore, there are evident claims of youth black males in more increased risk for school failure and dropout, arrest and incarceration, as one can see in various studies. It is important to note that this manifests more in blacks residing in America, or African-Americans adolescents. Whatever a white youth has to face as a challenge to prove itself to the world, the African-American has to take on double (Osyerman and Gant, 1996). For example, it is natural for youth in the cities to seek out for itself employment opportunities that would sustain them and lead them to satisfying career paths amidst the tapering of these labor possibilities. However, there had already been imposed a job ceiling on African-Americans that often times, advancing from entry-level positions became quite impossible. Moreover, the blacks living in poverty is actually dismaying as it increases rapidly, and jails swamped with these youth rather than the schools. The African-American are mostly in unstable, low-paying jobs or unemployed that most of them gave up on even seeking one. Thus, the

Argumentation-Persuasion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Argumentation-Persuasion - Essay Example The author critically provides reason and thought to come up with a conclusion about his position. For example, he analyses the Millennium challenge account by the Bush administration (Zakaria 1). The author then provides both the pros and cons of the strategy. The author addresses an agreeable audience. By providing logic and reasoning on the different options and strategies he presents, the author appears to have an agreeable audience. For every proposition presented, there is a reason and thought towards it. This gets to draw on an agreeable audience for the author. The author applies inductive reasoning to reach the conclusion that America is correct on good government policies, but American policies need improving. The author bases his argument from bottom-up logic. The author analyses specific examples on the strategies in place to end poverty in Africa before arriving to his conclusion. In ‘realism and responsibility’ the author applies various literal techniques that get to assist him to convey his message. The author uses logos and inductive reasoning to communicate to his audience. These techniques assist the author to have a comprehensive and well written

Sunday, August 11, 2019

Marijuana company Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Marijuana company - Essay Example One of the segmentation variables is the physicians. I choose this segment because physicians have a high knowledge of medical marijuana strain differences, the methods of consumptions, medical uses and the effects and have obviously prescribed medical marijuana to a patient. The second variable is the low income medical marijuana patients both males and females. I chose this variable because this group desire low prices that the company will offer and their expectations for the quality of marijuana are low. The frequency of their treatment is lso high and thus they make bulk purchases. The third variable is the average or above average income medical marijuana patients. These patients expect average to high prices,customer service, quality of marijuana, and strain differences. In addition, they have a high concern for non toxic chemical additives and treatments and the frequency of treatment is also high (Alisha, 2010). On treatment of cancer, medical marijuana is useful in increasing appetite and in reducing nausea related to chemotherapy. Medical marijuana is also good for individuals with epilepsy since it has a psychoactive chemical that inhibits the brain processes known to cause seizures. In addition, smoking marijuana tends to lower pressure in the eye; thus, relieving glaucoma discomfort for at least three hours. Patients suffering from HIV/Aids can use medical marijuana to battle with the effects of the disease. Patients who use medical marijuana gain weight despite their conditions. From trials carried out it is evident that medical marijuana contributes to a decrease in muscle stiffness and symptoms of multiple sclerosis. Constantly, marijuana has been used to reduce acute inflammation in patients (Alisha, 2010). Medical marijuana market is worth 1.3 million dollars with almost half a million-population target. The patients are supposed to buy medical marijuana from approved suppliers, which is

Saturday, August 10, 2019

Operations Management for Creating Competitive Advantage Essay

Operations Management for Creating Competitive Advantage - Essay Example The report also evaluates the various financials behind the activities as well as the budget that may be required. PROBLEM FACED BY TESCO The problem faced by Tesco is that of sustaining its market leader position. Competition from Sainsbury and other leading retail stores is a big threat for Tesco and it does not want to lose out on market share to these competitors. Thus, improving on operations management is one of the basic things that it can do. The various issues that it primarily faces with respect to operations management are that of layout, location selection, supply chain management and inventory. METHODOLOGY The methodology that was used was that of secondary sources. Books were referred and internet resources were checked to get information on the general theories of operations management as well as the way operations management is used in Tesco. RESEARCH ON TESCO AND IDENTIFICATION OF KEY ISSUES OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT THAT TESCO FACES Founded in 1919, Tesco is one of United Kingdom's leading companies. It is an international chain, retail based, which initially used to sell grocery but with time, has diversified into general merchandising. In Britain, it has the prestigious title of being the top most and the largest retailer, if measured through global sales as well as the market shares that they have captured on a domestic level, within Britain. So be it be the domestic competition or the international competitors, Tesco has left them all behind. Tesco also has improved over the years and thus has secured the fourth best and largest retailer in the whole world in the top ten countdown of the year 2008. Thus, the whole alignment and setting of the top five retailers got altered because of the increase in... In this report, Britain-based company Tesco has been aimed and its operations management activities have been analyzed. Recommendations on how OM activities can be improved have also been given. The report also evaluates the various financials behind the activities as well as the budget that may be required. This paper makes a conclusion that the problem faced by Tesco is that of sustaining its market leader position. Competition from Sainsbury and other leading retail stores is a big threat for Tesco and it does not want to lose out on market share to these competitors. Thus, improving on operations management is one of the basic things that it can do. The various issues that it primarily faces with respect to operations management are that of layout, location selection, supply chain management and inventory. The methodology that was used was that of secondary sources. Books were referred and internet resources were checked to get information on the general theories of operations management as well as the way operations management is used in Tesco. Tesco is one of the largest retail stores of UK, thus it needs to constantly improve and out do its own self to maintain the leader position. For this, productivity and efficiency has to be increased with time. This can only be made possible if Tesco invests in better operations management, since it will give a sure shot competitive advantage to the company over its competitors.

Friday, August 9, 2019

Evaluation of the Humane Society of Indianapolis Research Paper

Evaluation of the Humane Society of Indianapolis - Research Paper Example As a part of their activities, they provide shelter to animals, and provide effective behavioral training to animals that are in their shelters and also to animals that their owners bring for such training. Such training is also imparted to animals that have not yet been adopted but are eminently adoptable. These trainings are provided through the Society’s public training classes and the Society tries to spread awareness about humane treatment to animals through various forums that are available for reaching out to the people of Indianapolis (Services for Pet Owners, 2011). Organization The Society operates through free service provided by volunteers that are genuinely interested about the welfare of animals and are eager to provide some succor to them at times of their distress. But these volunteers are not simply well intentioned warm hearted individuals. Helping animals sure requires some rigorous training as untrained individuals might cause harm to both themselves and the animals no matter how honest and genuine their intentions are. Hence, the Society provides training to its volunteers so that they are totally equipped and fully aware of what they should do and how they should act in situations where animals need human help in order to survive in a decent and dignified manner without the fear of cruelty or ill treatment or even neglect (About Us, 2011). Criteria 1 It is a not for profit organization that does not avail of any governmental grants or donations. Neither does it accept any donations or grants from private animal welfare organizations like PETA or ASPCA, two of the more well known animal welfare organizations of United States of America. The Society is run exclusively on private contributions and donations from private individuals who are interested and impressed about the activities of the Society. This gives the Society an unparalleled independence to chalk out its own course of action without any direction or guidance from any remote central authority. This freedom allows it to micro manage its operations in ways it deems would be best suited for distressed animals in Indianapolis and thus become more relevant to local problems than any national agency, be it governmental or be it non-governmental, can ever become (About Us, 2011). Criteria 2 The values incorporated by this organization speak volumes about their ethical and integrity, moral rigidity and honesty of purpose. That they are genuine animal lovers is evident from the compassion with they treat animals and what is best is they never make any distinction between whether the animals are pets or have been abandoned by their owners and are now no more than stray dogs. This uniform approach to all animals can come from only genuine animal lovers and not those who simply pose to gain social brownie points. This compassion in all probabilities generates a deep sense of respect of the bond between humans and animals that can grow only between a devoted animal and equally devoted owner and it sure takes time to develop as this is such a sensitive issue that it can develop in a unique natural way that unfolds over a long period. The organization recognizes and is deeply respectful of this unshakeable bond between pets and their owners. Such a huge activity can only be possible through unstinted cooperation from all interested individuals and the Society pays utmost regard and is eager to embrace any form genuine cooperation. This allows the Society to reach to all sections of the society irrespective of what class, creed or ethnicity such individual s hail from. This not only gives the Society a more inclusive character but also ensures a more democratic outlook. As it