Thursday, January 30, 2020
The oxidation of ethanol Essay The purpose of this experiment is to oxidize ethanol and then to test the product to determine whether it has been oxidised to ethanal or oxidised to ethanoic acid. Method We added 6cmi of water to a pear-shaped flask, then added 2cmi of concentrated sulphuric acid, and set up the apparatus as shown below, but with a stopper in place of the dropping funnel. We ensured that all the glass joints were greased. We then had to make up a solution containing 5g of sodium dichromate in 5cmi of water and add 4cmi of ethanol. We had tom pour this mixture into the dropping funnel. We heated the acid in the pear-shaped flask until it was almost boiling and then turned off the bunsen burner. We then had to carefully remove the stopper and put the dropping funnel into the correct position, as shown in the diagram. We then added the mixture containing the ethanol at such a rate to maintain the boiling of the mixture in the pear-shaped flask. We collected the distillate and recorded our observations. After collecting the distillate we had to do two tests to see whether we had oxidised ethanol into ethanal or ethanoic acid. The first test was to put 5 drops of the distillate into a test tube and 5 drops of universal indicator solution. The second test was to put 5 drops of the distillate into a test tube and add a small amount of sodium carbonate. Both of these tests were tests for carboxylic acids. The test for an alderhyde was replaced with sodium carbonate test as we didnt have the resources to carry out the test with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Safety There were many hazards in the context of this experiment in some of the chemicals we used that we needed to be aware of. Using ethanol was a hazard as it was highly flammable above 13i C and had a narcotic effect as a result of inhalation of the vapour. It is also dangerous with oxidising agents as uncontrollable reactions take place. To prepare for these hazards we needed to keep the solution away from the bunsen flame and wear goggles in case any uncontrollable reactions happened. The sodium dichromate we used was very toxic and could cause cancer by inhalation and was harmful if swallowed or if contacted with skin sensitisation could occur. Ulceration also could have occurred on damaged skin. It is also dangerous with combustible materials as it forms explosive or vigorously burning mixtures. To prepare for this hazard we needed to be careful not to spill any and to wear lab coats and goggles. Sulphuric acid that we used is very corrosive and can cause severe burns. It is dangerous with sodium as dangerous reactions could take place and also water as vigorous reactions occur when the concentrated acid is diluted. To prepare for this hazard we needed to again make sure we wore lab coats and goggles to protect our eyes, skin and clothing. The sodium carbonate we used was an irritant on the eyes, skin and respiratory system so with this we needed to wear goggles to protect our eyes. With this experiment ethanal could have been formed. Ethanal is extremely flammable above -27i C and is harmful with risks or irreversible effects. It is dangerous with sulphuric acid as violent polymerisation reactions could occur. To prepare for this hazard we needed to keep the possible distillate away from the bunsen flame and wear lab coats and goggles. The other possibility was that ethanoic acid could have been formed. This is corrosive and can cause severe burns. It is flammable above 40i C and the vapour released is very irritating to the respiratory system. To prepare for this hazard we needed to again keep it way from the bunsen burner, wear goggles and lab coats. Observations Throughout the experiment there were many different observations. Whilst mixing the ethanol with the sulphuric acid and water solution the solution changed from clear to orange. It then changed to green and then to a very dark green. This therefore showed that an oxidation reaction was happening. The solution was maintaining boiling point throughout the experiment as it bubbled. To distillate we collected was a clear solution. The two tests we did with the distillate were to add the distillate to universal indicator. This turned the solution bright red. This therefore showed an acid was present. So according to this test we had produces ethanoic acid. The second test was to add sodium carbonate to the distillate. This showed a slight fizzing which also shows the distillate is an acid. Conclusion After doing the experiment my results show that a carboxylic acid has been formed. I have come to this conclusion as after doing both tests with this distillate my results show an acid has been formed. It was an oxidation reaction of a primary alcohol and with this reaction either an alderhyde or carboxylic acid can be formed. The carboxylic acid will have been formed as there would have been an excess of dichromate. The equation for this reaction is: CH3CH2OH + 2[O] CH3COOH + H2O I have made my decision as a carboxylic acid as two tests have shown this and test 1 with the universal indicator proved it was an acid by changing from colourless to red and test 2 showed fizzing which is also the sign of an acid being formed.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
INTRODUCTION- Sally Dingo the author of Ernie Dingo the King of the Kids, positions us as we read through the book for us to feel almost we had known him all through his life, and that we are like mates toward him. we may feel sympathy for one of their beloved family member dies or admiration for ErnieÃ¢â¬â¢s sporting talents in basketball, he was usually called Ã¢â¬Ëshow ponyÃ¢â¬â¢. SADNESS- Many people that Ullie, Bessie and Ernie loved passed away in the story. Many of them were close family relatives; friends and people help them out. The feeling of the sadness comes out of the book and makes you feel like you are in the scene watching it all happen and crying for them. Women who are widowed in the family usually donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a shoulder to lean on or comfort them, and that was the case of Bessie when her mother Ullie died on her 7th stroke. Bessie did not have anyone to comfort her, and she was depressed about her husband Nobby, not treating the children right. As in not supporting them to go to school, and holds boxing tournaments against the sons etc. ADMIRE- We admire many people for their different types of talents. Well Sally Dingo has written in the book some qualities of people whom we admire like having a kind and caring personality. Dingo Jim, BessieÃ¢â¬â¢s father, had many powers. Among the Yamatji, he was known as a Clever Man. Dingo Jim could even have visions of what if going on at home take for example when Bessie fell into the fire. Dingo Jim knew there was something wron...
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Two aspects of London as shown through a response to poems by Blake and Wordsworth. When comparing Blake and WordsworthÃ¢â¬â¢s pieces, the respective perspectives of the authors should never be far from our thoughts. Whereas Blake lived in London his whole life and seldom ventured outside its borders, Wordsworth was a rural person whose only experiences of London came from short visits. Unaccustomed to the hustle and bustle of City life, Wordsworth led a comparatively relaxed existence which perhaps accounts for his romantic and gentile style. We should not be surprised to see that Blake, a frequenter of the less-desirable districts of the capital, offers a far more cynical portrayal of London. BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s poem is a social commentary which points an ugly finger at the industrialist pioneers and the flaws of Industrial society. Blake was a renowned radical of the era with far-reaching ideas. He uses many literary devices to impart his opinions upon his audience. This is superbly demonstrated when he writes: Ã¢â¬Å"I wander through each chartered streetÃ¢â¬ The reference is a metaphorical reflection on BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s perception that anything and everything is for sale in an industrial society and, in particular, in its impoverished areas. Repetition is clearly employed when the piece claims: Ã¢â¬Å"In every cry of every man, In every infantÃ¢â¬â¢s cry of fear, In every voice, in every ban, The mind-forged manacles I hearÃ¢â¬ The repetition could be equated with anything from the machinery at work in the factories and mills, to an assault of stabbing pain upon those suffering in poverty. Within the framework which Blake creates, the reader is left to determine his own idea of what the repetition may represent, and this is at the centre of the verseÃ¢â¬â¢s success. Irony is employed with great effect in the verse beginning Ã¢â¬Å"How the chimney-sweeperÃ¢â¬â¢s cryÃ¢â¬ . The author contrasts the poverty and ill-health of chimney-sweeps with the wealth of the church, and suggests that instead of helping the poor the church pays them a pittance to work in hazardous conditions. Irony often stands side by side with black humour, and both are well-demonstrated in this verse. The amusing of the reader with a subject which should not amuse serves to further draw them into the piece. In the latter part of the same verse, emotive comparisons are made between the plight of LondonÃ¢â¬â¢s less-fortunate and warfare. BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s use of the word Ã¢â¬ËsoldiersÃ¢â¬â¢ is no accident here; for soldiers are tools of war, and must have opponents. This leads the reader to ask: with whom are the Ã¢â¬ËsoldiersÃ¢â¬â¢ at war? As Marx foretold and the French Revolution demonstrated, the working classes and those controlling the means of production operate with opposing aims. Blake brings a new element of severity to the situation by suggesting that forces are at work against the poor subjects. INSERT LAST VERSE DISCUSSION HERE Wordsworth is blissfully unaware of the scenes which Blake paints. Indeed, WordsworthÃ¢â¬â¢s London is so far removed from BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s that one is led to ask whether the two are writing of the same city at all. There is a significant period of time between the two which could arguably account for this; WordsworthÃ¢â¬â¢s work being written before the Industrial Revolution and BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢ at its height.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Running head: Observation Studies (Revised) Observation Studies in Evaluation and Institutional Research Observation Methodology Paper PSYC Ã¢â¬â 724C James Campbell When is it appropriate to use the observation method to conduct research on subjects? Clearly, a number of questions that researchers want or need to address relating to human behaviors or actions cannot be addressed or answered by traditional research methods. One of the best ways to answer a number of these questions is the use of observation. Observational research is best used when the following factors are recognized and accommodation made to address them: Such factors are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Reducing the effects of the observer on the observed, to ensure the trueÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¢ Is the researcher using a set of guides, field notes, recording sheets and an established coding system to ensure the best results? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Should a digital record or video record be used to document body language and visual or audio responses? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Do the participants being observed truly represent the population being generalized in the study? Can the participants provide the answers needed in the research questions being study? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Do the observers provide enough time to truly record the real responses of the participants? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Does the environment help or hinder the observerÃ¢â¬â¢s observations? Will this environment best represent and illuminate the social meanings or shared culture of the persons being studied? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Does the questions being asked totally represent the perspectives of the group being observed? Are the social interactions at the observation rich enough to represent the complexity of the questions being asked or the people being observed? Ã¢â¬ ¢ If the researcher doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to depend on other personsÃ¢â¬â¢ observations, can electronic devises ethnically be used? This is a great help to the research methodology; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Is the greatest number of possible biases or filtered personal lens noted up front and labeled in the limitations part of the study? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lastly, the method being used is costly and time consuming. A high level of skill and precision is needed for using and collecting field notes, creating